After Italy's postwar territorial demands were rejected by the other Allies, Prime Minister Orlando and the Italian delegation walked out of the peace conference.
The standoff between the Turks and what remained of the Allies (Greece, backed up by Britain) leads to war.
As the USA, Italy, and France lose interest in the region, Britain fights to enforce the Treaty of Sèvres, relying on the Greek Army to provide the military might. Meanwhile, the political situation in Greece changes.
As Allied troops took up positions in Turkey, the Allies and the Ottoman government signed the Treaty of Sèvres, which imposed a harsh set of conditions. But nationalist Turks in the interior of Anatolia were not ready to give up the struggle.
The British accepted Hussein of Mecca as King of Hejaz, but when he resisted their plan to remake the Near East, they allowed the neighboring Emir of Najd to seize control.
An American archaeologist coined the term "The Fertile Crescent" just three years ago in 1916 to describe the arc of lands from Mesopotamia to Palestine that were the most fertile Arab territories. In 1919, France and Britain divided the Fertile Crescent between themselves, much to the displeasure of the Arabs living there.
In 1919, the Allies were poised to parcel out the lands of the Near East among themselves. But the inhabitants of the region had other ideas.
When the time came to determine the future of Germany's colonies, Woodrow Wilson insisted on a system of mandates that would, at least in principle, require that they be governed for the benefit of their inhabitants.
Africa had been known in Europe as the "Dark Continent." It was merely an obstacle to get around on the way to Asia, then a source of slaves, and finally a territory to exploit. Europeans took it upon themselves to educate Africans, but then educated Africans began to wonder why they still didn't have the same rights.