Leon Trotsky challenged the Allies to state what great cause they were fighting for that justified continuing the war. With the Central Powers showing signs of readiness to negotiate, Woodrow Wilson lays out his conditions.
The Great War was framed in the West as a fight for the future of democracy, but in this episode we ponder how the demands of war are weakening democracy at home.
We look at economic and social changes in America brought on by the war, including the Espionage Act and new restrictions on freedom of expression.
Early 1918 saw both Germany and Russia each eager to make peace for their own reasons, but the power of the German military forced the Bolshevik government in Russia to accept the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
The October Revolution was seen at the time as merely replacing one temporary arrangement with another. But the Bolsheviks had other ideas.
Although Iran was not a belligerent in the Great War, Russian and Turkish armies clashed in Iran and the nation suffered. The Greek government split over the war question.
As British troops advance into Palestine, the British Cabinet formally embraces the concept of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, but does not explain what that means.
Is it because of the Great War that Billy Sunday had his greatest revival ever? Or that peasant children in Portugal witness miracles?
The Chinese government (despite its many internal problems) was willing to enter the Great War in order to reclaim concessions lost to Germany and Austria. The Allies were initially hesitant, but as the casualties mounted and the shortage of manpower became acute, Chinese civilian laborers began working behind the front lines. Later, after a U-boat attack killed hundreds of Chinese, China formally entered the war.
Mata Hari earned internationally acclaim as a dancer during the Belle Époque by trading on her exotic (and mostly invented) origins. But during the Great War, being mysterious and not entirely honest can get you killed.