The October Revolution led to the brief emergence of independent nations of Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan for the first time in centuries, but their independence was not to last. Also, we look at the early days of post-Civil War Russia.
The White movement collapsed rapidly over the winter of 1919-1920, leaving the Bolsheviks in control of Russia. Even the Allies had to reconcile themselves to the new order in Russia.
The White armies opposing the new Bolshevik government in Moscow reached their peak in the autumn of 1919, when White armies were within 200 miles of Moscow and within sight of Petrograd.
The Allies supported anti-Bolshevik forces in Russia, but once the Great War ended, the Allies were in a dilemma. Abandon the White movement, or see the conflict through?
Bolshevik Russia and the western Allies tried to maintain cordial relations during 1918, but it didn't last. By the end of the year, Allied troops were in Russia and Allied governments were backing anti-Bolshevik forces.
The three Baltic states manage to become the only Imperial Russian possessions--besides Finland and Poland--to win their independence.
Finland was able to win its independence from Russia peacefully, but soon after came a bloody civil war.
The birth of Poland was a foregone conclusion, but where its boundaries should lie was very much in dispute and led to bloodshed.
By 1916, both sides in the Great War had declared their desire to see an independent Poland after the war. Now the time had come.
In this final episode on Austria-Hungary, we look at the new nations of Austria and Hungary that emerged from the old Empire. We also take a look at two young Hungarians of the time who became important figures in the US film industry.