An American archaeologist coined the term "The Fertile Crescent" just three years ago in 1916 to describe the arc of lands from Mesopotamia to Palestine that were the most fertile Arab territories. In 1919, France and Britain divided the Fertile Crescent between themselves, much to the displeasure of the Arabs living there.
In 1919, the Allies were poised to parcel out the lands of the Near East among themselves. But the inhabitants of the region had other ideas.
When the time came to determine the future of Germany's colonies, Woodrow Wilson insisted on a system of mandates that would, at least in principle, require that they be governed for the benefit of their inhabitants.
Africa had been known in Europe as the "Dark Continent." It was merely an obstacle to get around on the way to Asia, then a source of slaves, and finally a territory to exploit. Europeans took it upon themselves to educate Africans, but then educated Africans began to wonder why they still didn't have the same rights.
In the aftermath of the Russian Civil War, Lenin introduces the New Economic Policy, the USSR is organized, and prominent Socialist Revolutionaries are prosecuted for treason. Lenin falls ill in 1923 and dies in early 1924.
The October Revolution led to the brief emergence of independent nations of Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan for the first time in centuries, but their independence was not to last. Also, we look at the early days of post-Civil War Russia.
The White movement collapsed rapidly over the winter of 1919-1920, leaving the Bolsheviks in control of Russia. Even the Allies had to reconcile themselves to the new order in Russia.
The White armies opposing the new Bolshevik government in Moscow reached their peak in the autumn of 1919, when White armies were within 200 miles of Moscow and within sight of Petrograd.
The Allies supported anti-Bolshevik forces in Russia, but once the Great War ended, the Allies were in a dilemma. Abandon the White movement, or see the conflict through?
Bolshevik Russia and the western Allies tried to maintain cordial relations during 1918, but it didn't last. By the end of the year, Allied troops were in Russia and Allied governments were backing anti-Bolshevik forces.